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Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15–А21. В каждом задании укажите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа.
Meat eaters – you are daredevils or dumb. Or both.
I am a vegetarian as well as my parents and all my family members. I’ve been a vegetarian for as long as I can remember. There have been times during my years of vegetarianism when I've wondered if I may indeed grow out of it. I've wondered if there might come a day when I'll put aside my childish aversion to the thought of dead stuff travelling through my intestines, like a corpse on a raft ride.
However, it could never happen, and not because I'm so enlightened, sensitive or any of the other euphemisms for "whining hippie" usually dumped on vegetarians. My conversion to flesh-eating couldn't happen because, frankly, I'm not stupid enough. As in, I can read.
Analysis of more than 6,000 pancreatic cancer cases published in the British Journal of Cancer says that eating just 50g of processed meat a day (one sausage or a couple of slices of bacon) raises the likelihood of pancreatic cancer by a fifth. 100g a day (the equivalent of a medium burger) raises it by 38%, 150g by 57%. Men are worst hit, as they tend to eat the most processed meat. And while pancreatic cancer is not the most common of cancers, it's frequently diagnosed late, with four-fifths of sufferers dying within a year of diagnosis.
It should be pointed out that this is about processed meat. However, many past studies have stated a probable link between too much meat and all manner of cancers and heart problems, as well as links to other conditions, from diabetes and high blood pressure to obesity and Alzheimer's.
If, by now, you're thinking that I'm out to shock you, then you couldn't be more wrong. I'd be shocked if any of this was considered new enough to shock anyone. This information has popped up regularly for years in all forms of popular media – newspapers and numerous TV and radio programs, to say nothing of the Internet. Indeed, in this era of info overload, if you've never come across the "burgers and kebabs are unhealthy" revelation, one would have to presume you've been lying in a coma.
Sympathy is in short supply these days. You can't move for people being blamed for their own miserable situations: smokers who "burden" the NHS; alcoholics who don't "deserve" liver transplants; obese people who "should" pay more for flights. By this logic, people who've been regularly informed of the dangers of meat, particularly the cheap processed variety, but who continue to wolf it down should be held just as accountable.
Yet if these meat eaters are mentioned at all, it's in general poor lifestyle terms, as an afterthought to drinking, smoking, and lack of exercise. You just don't get people making emotional pronouncements about bacon lovers not deserving cancer treatment or kebab fans burdening the NHS.
It's not as if they haven't been warned countless times about the dangers – how willfully ill-informed can people be? Or maybe they're just hard. In fact, when I say I'm not dumb enough to eat meat, I should probably add brave enough. With so much frightening information, so readily available for so long, the modern committed carnivore must have nerves of steel. And yet, we should admit it, meat eaters still predominate and even grow in number. Must all of them be deaf and blind, and immune to a general sense of self-safety?
Why does the author think that her information can’t be shocking?
It’s not proven.
It’s not news.
It’s too popular.
Saying “sympathy is in short supply these days”, the author means that …
meat eaters do not deserve her sympathy.
overweight people should pay more.
people tend to blame sick people in their sickness.
society neglects people who have problems.
The author is disappointed that eating meat is not …
considered as bad as drinking and smoking.
related to a poor lifestyle.
recognized as a major life-risking habit.
The author believes that meat eaters are very …
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифрутолько один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
It had its finest hour
A long way to popularity
A stairway to heaven
Ideas on sale
Brilliant ideas and brave deeds
Born in 1743, Thomas Jefferson helped shape the new American nation and also shaped some of the country's most famous buildings. The twentieth century architects who designed the circular Jefferson Memorial in Washington D.C. drew inspiration from Thomas Jefferson's architectural ideas. And from where did Jefferson get his ideas? The Pantheon in Rome! This building with its classical portico became a model that influenced Western architecture for 2,000 years.
Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse. Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Philip Johnson's AT&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of postmodernism. Like many buildings in the international style, this skyscraper has a classical facade.
The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metals instead of wood and stone in construction. Built in 1889, the EiffelTower is perhaps the most famous example of this new use for metal. For 40 years, the Eiffel Tower measured the tallest in the world. The metal lattice-work, formed with very pure structural iron, makes the tower both extremely light and able to withstand tremendous wind forces.
By the early 1800s, Belfast had become a major port at the beating heart of the region's industry. The launching of the Titanic from the shipways was attended by an estimated 100,000 people, showing how important this event was for Belfast. Many more impressive ships would leave the yard in the coming years before the decline of the shipbuilding industry began in the 1950s, but the Titanic marked the zenith of the great shipbuilding era inBelfast.
Thomas Andrews was the chief naval architect at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast during the early 1900s. He brought the idea of 'Olympic class' ocean liners to life. The most famous of these was Titanic, which he joined on its first voyage. His actions when the ship sank on 15 April 1912 are believed to have saved many lives, but at the cost of his own. In his home town of Comber, the life of Thomas Andrews is commemorated by the Memorial Hall, opened in 1915.
An e-book or “electronic book” is available digitally downloaded, and accessed through a device such as a computer, a smart phone or, popularly, a portable e-book reader. In 1971, Michael Hart began storing vast contents of libraries in electronic formats. Hart named his efforts Project Gutenberg, after the inventor of the printing press. Libraries were early adopters of the technology. But it took nearly thirty years for the idea of the e-book to take firm hold with the consumer.
The Frankfurt Book Fair is held in October of each year. It usually hosts more than 7,300 exhibitors from 100 countries ranging from Albania toZimbabwe. For the American book publishing industry, the Frankfurt Book Fair is predominantly a trade fair, that is, a professional meeting place for publishers, editors, librarians, book subsidiary rights managers, booksellers, film producers, authors and many others who are involved in the creation and licensing of book content.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
For more than 200 years Madame Tussaud’s has been attracting tourists from all over the world and it remains just as popular as it ever was. There are many reasons for this enduring success, but at the heart of it all is good, old-fashioned curiosity.
Madame Tussaud’s original concept has entered a brand new era of interactive entertainment A __________. Today’s visitors are sent on a breathtaking journey in black cabs through hundreds of years of the past. They have a unique chance to see the great legends of history, B __________ of politics.
Much of the figure construction technique follows the traditional pattern, beginning whenever possible with the subject C __________ and personal characteristics. The surprising likeliness of the wax portraits also owes much to many stars D __________, either by providing their stage clothes, or simply giving useful advice.
The museum continues constantly to add figures E __________ popularity. The attraction also continues to expand globally with established international branches in New York, Hong Kong, Amsterdam and many other cities. And they all have the same rich mix of interaction, authenticity and local appeal.
The museum provides a stimulating and educational environment for schoolchildren. Its specialists are working together with practicing teachers and educational advisors to create different programmes of activities, F __________.
that reflect contemporary public opinion and celebrity
as well as resources on art, technology and drama
ranging from special effects to fully animated figures
as well as the idols of popular music and the icons
who are eager to help in any possible way they can
ranging from all kinds of souvenirs to sports equipment
who is sitting to determine exact measurements
Shape it up: tips you can follow for a healthier campus diet
Rushing up and down the streets, I often have days when I wonder how I will find the time to eat. This is when it becomes easy for students to turn to fast food. Once you stop living close by or have awkward time gaps between classes, fast food is available at almost every on-campus eatery.
There’s no doubt that the university tries to make healthier food readily available. Some cafes have organic foods ready to go and Greenhouse allows students to make almost any kind of fresh salad they can think of. But I have to wonder, why is there so much fast food available? For many students, it’s difficult to choose an expensive salad from Greenhouse over a meal from Taco Bell.
To solve the problem of finding healthy food on campus without having to eat salad daily, I do three things: take advantage of meal options I previously disregarded, completely ignore any fast food place and get creative in the dining halls.
First, I take advantage of meal options I had previously disregarded at on-campus restaurants. Being both a vegetarian and interested in a fair-trade diet has made it somewhat challenging to arrange an eating plan while living on campus. With limited options, food gets old fast. I looked closely at menus to see what options I overlooked. On campus, I eat oatmeal and fresh fruit instead of getting smoothies. I try the soup at Greenhouse instead of salad. If I have time in the morning I use an extra swipe and pack a lunch. By including this, I now have something new to eat each day, and I can go an entire school week without repeating a lunch.
As I create a pattern of eateries to maintain a healthy diet without losing interest in the food, it is clear I cannot include every on-campus restaurant in my plan.
This is where my second solution comes in. I have learned to completely ignore fast food. If I linger in front of Panda Express or Sbarro too long, temptation takes over. I started ignoring these places in the middle of fall quarter, and now I can walk by them without a thought. The only way I know to accomplish this is willpower. Of course, that does not mean in any way that you should never allow yourself the occasional visit to these restaurants. Everyone deserves a treat sometimes. I know I can never give up animal-style fries completely.
Finally, I have learned to get creative in dining halls. This can’t easily be done outside a dining hall, so it isn’t exactly an “on-the-go” solution to eating on campus. Just the same, it can help make meals less boring. I often take a veggie patty and make a wrap out of it, and I use the salad bar to throw on any other toppings I want. I use the microwave to heat up whatever I want in it. If you are a meat lover, you can put the bacon bits from the salad bar or slice a grilled chicken breast to put in soup or pasta.
When living on a college campus, it can be difficult to find a way to eat what you like and what’s good for you while trying to avoid a repetitive diet. There are a limited number of options available and the dominance of fast food can be hard to ignore. But if you try out as many places as you can, use willpower and turn on your creativity, you can certainly design your own healthy meal plan that won’t feel as if you eat the same thing every day.
According to the author students turn to fast food when …
they are short of time.
they have no willpower.
their schedule is well adjusted.
they live close to the campus.
What does the author think about eating opportunities on campus?
She thinks they do a great job providing salads at a reasonable price.
She can’t understand why they offer so many fast food choices.
She believes they need to provide more organic food.
She thinks that meals from Taco Bell are too expensive.
What is the author’s method of maintaining a healthy diet?
Trying new dishes on the menu.
Carefully choosing an on-campus restaurant.
Changing a restaurant daily.
What is NOT characteristic of the author’s eating habits?
She studies the menus attentively.
She tries to vary the food she eats.
She misses lunches.
She avoids eating meat.