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This museum tells you about the history of
1. Step inside this magical 1850s ''Cinema'' for an exciting tour of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. As the lights go down a brilliant moving image of the capital appears before you, while the guide tells the story of Edinburgh's historic past.
2. The National Waterways Museum of Gloucester brings to life the time when Britain's waterways were dug between towns. Transport by these ways was cheaper than transport by land. Many exhibits give visitors the chance to relive the Age which helped to revolutionize Britain's water system.
3. Black Country Museum is an open-air museum. Your visit there is always exciting and enjoyable. Guides in national costumes and working demonstrators tell visitors a story of the time when different machines were invented in Britain and factories began to develop very quickly.
4. Travel through time and discover the colourful story of travel. See shiny buses, tube trains and trams of different centuries. As you step into the past you'll meet people who've kept London moving for 200 years. Hold tight as you put yourself in the driving seat and enjoy your journey.
5. This museum is full of wonderful models of trains, buses, ships and cars. See the 1920s model Story Land Park and play the old slot-machines. It also has a nursery of the beginning of the 20th century. The wonderful collection of dolls contains different marionettes from Ancient Roman Gladiator doll to figures of today.
6. This museum illustrates the development of human knowledge through different instruments. The museum has a clockwork model of the solar system from1750 as well as microscopes, telescopes, navigation instruments, electrical machines and tools.
Food and drink
1. Irish hand-made tweed is famous all over the world for its individual look, its quality and different colours. This cloth is made from wool and widely used for caps, hats, skirts, trousers, and jackets. Tweeds can be bought in most of the larger cities as well as in the specialist tweed shops. The most famous place for tweed production in Ireland is Donegal.
2. Ceili consists of hundreds of people. They join arms together, dance up and down a hall at high speeds to the fast sounds of Irish traditional music. Men and women move so quickly turning round and round, that if they don't fall at least once, it means that they are not trying hard enough.
3. Gaelic is not widely used today in Ireland. With hundreds of years of colonisation by the British it lost its significance and was used less and less. It wasn't allowed to be taught in the schools, and it became impossible to use Gaelic in most jobs.
4. Irish products are very popular. Irish hand-made farmhouse cheeses, chocolates and wild smoked salmon taste so nice that they are known everywhere. Many people like Irish coffee which is a hot drink made with coffee, whiskey, and cream. Baileys, a cream liqueur, is becoming known internationally. We must also mention Guinness, is a type of beer, which for many years has been as the meal in a glass.
5. Children in Ireland love to listen to stories about leprechaun, a small wizard with magic powers who could make impossible things happen. He is dressed in green velvet and wears a shiny black belt and magic shoes. He is very small, no more than half a metre tall. He has a pot of gold and gets very angry if he thinks someone is trying to steal it.
6. Irish products are of great value and high quality. They can always tell a story of the history, culture and geography of the place where they were made. Most visitors know of Aran sweaters, Irish lace, Ulster linen table-cloths and bed covers, Galway glasses, Tara plates and cups. Hardly any visitor leaves the country without buying something which will remind them of the country later.
1. On most downtown Manhattan streets people are not allowed to leave their cars. Midtown car parks and garages are about $6.75 an hour. Some restaurants and hotels have free car parks. If you are staying at a hotel with this service, it is easiest to leave your car in the garage and use public transport or taxis.
2. Start your day with a laugh, enjoy the funniest pictures in The New York Daily News. Turn over the pages of The NY Times which has won a total of 108 Pulitzer prizes. Read 11 English and foreign language papers which come out every day and you will be in touch with serious problems in the world and in the country.
3. Seasons in New York are distinct. Summers are generally hot and humid, with practically no difference between daytime and evening temperatures. Winters tend to be bitter, although snow and sleet are not that often. Spring and autumn are mild in the day time and cool at nights.
4. This is a great way to see New York. Drivers are experienced and you will feel safe; buses are comfortable and you will feel fine in any weather. They are all air-conditioned. You are offered different excursions. The all-day excursions visit the top tourist attractions and other excursions which last from 2 to 4 hours can be interesting for people with different tastes.
5. No visit to Long Island is complete without the Marriot. Centrally located near Roosevelt Raceway and Roosevelt Field Indoor Mall, it offers expensive and comfortable rooms, fine restaurants, a lively nightclub with an indoor pool. You will be offered outstanding service and hospitality. For information and reservation call (800)228-9290.
6. Drivers, front seat passengers and all back seat passengers younger than 10 must fasten their seat belts around themselves. The state law takes these precautions to protect people against possible trouble. Drivers pay if their passengers are younger than 16 and not wearing seat belts.
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Shopping from home
Shopping in comfort
1. A group of university students from Brazil have been given the job of discovering and locating all the waterfalls in their country. It is not easy because very often the maps are not detailed. The students have to remain in water for long periods of time. Every day they cover a distance of 35 to 40 kilometers through the jungle, each carrying 40 kilos of equipment.
2. For many years now, mail-order shopping has served the needs of a certain kind of customers. Everything they order from a catalogue is delivered to their door. Now, though, e-mail shopping on the Internet has opened up even more opportunities for this kind of shopping.
3. Another generation of computer fans has arrived. They are neither spotty schoolchildren nor intellectual professors, but pensioners who are learning computing with much enthusiasm. It is particularly interesting for people suffering from arthritis as computers offer a way of writing nice clear letters. Now pensioners have discovered the Internet and at the moment they make up the fastest growing membership.
4. Shopping centres are full of all kinds of stores. They are like small, self-contained towns where you can find everything you want. In a large centre, shoppers can find everything they need without having to go anywhere else. They can leave their cars in the shopping centre car park and buy everything in a covered complex, protected from the heat, cold or rain.
5. Not many people know that, back in the fifties, computers were very big, and also very slow. They took up complete floors of a building, and were less powerful, and much slower than any of today’s compact portable computers. At first, the data they had to process and record was fed in on punched-out paper; later magnetic tape was used, but both systems were completely inconvenient.
6. Potholing is a dull name for a most interesting and adventurous sport. Deep underground, on the tracks of primitive men and strange animals who have adapted to life without light, finding unusual landscapes and underground lakes, the potholer lives an exciting adventure. You mustn’t forget, though, that it can be quite dangerous. Without the proper equipment you can fall, get injured or lost.
An office at home
Computers for making films
“No” to computer games
Driving in the future
Computers for building up team spirit
1. Safe, comfortable and, above all, green. Electric-powered cars will not produce any substances which are dangerous for either people or the environment. In 10-20 years all cars will have their own built-in computers. These computers will help choose the best way to go and avoid accidents. You can even sit back and let the computer do the driving!
2. As you know personal computers use a lot of power. In fact, with their printers and monitors, computers in the USA use each year as much electricity as the whole state of Oregon. Not to waste electricity, new “green” computers are being developed by more than a hundred personal computer firms in theUSA. When left on but unused for more than a few minutes, they go down to a standby, using 80 per cent less energy. At a command the PCs return to full power.
3. Nowadays, people working in offices use computers, which contain hundreds of documents. Do you know how much space these documents would take up, if they were printed on paper? They’d occupy whole rooms! In many offices computers are linked in a network. This way, employees can exchange information and messages without moving from their tables.
4. Technology has allowed more and more people to work from the place where they live. Using a modem on a telephone line connected to their computer, everyone can be linked to the company computer. In this way, they don’t waste so much time, because they don’t have to go to the office every day. It also means less pollution in the atmosphere caused by transport.
5. Good-bye, pencils! Farewell, sheets of paper! These days cartoons are being made with a computer. The first-ever cartoon to be created by computer was “Toy Story” produced by Steve Jobs. A typical Walt Disney cartoon usually needs up to 600 designers. “Toy Story” was made using only 100. So, like so much of modern life, today’s cinema seems to be falling more and more into the hands of the computer.
6. If someone asked you about the negative aspects of a computer game, probably the first thing that would come to your mind is that it isolates a person from other people. Now the first virtual reality computer game has appeared which can be played in a group of 6 people at the same time. The game is called “The Loch Ness Expedition.” Each player is given a role in the underwater expedition. Players have to cooperate to achieve the goal.
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Colours for royal families
Colours around you
Origin of the toy’s name
Toys for all ages
1. People say that red, yellow and orange are “warm”, and that blue and green are “cool”. But if you touch a red wool sweater, it doesn’t feel warmer than a blue wool sweater. Scientists have taken the temperature of colours with a special instrument called a thermopile and have found that reds and oranges are warmer than blues and greens.
2. Pandas are wonderful. They look so nice, rather like soft furry toys. No wonder people love them. At any zoo they are always the centre of attention. The most striking thing about pandas is their black and white colouring. Pandas are strict vegetarians. They eat only young bamboo stems and nothing else. Pandas are peaceful, friendly and harmless. They have no enemies.
3. Imagine being arrested and thrown into prison for wearing a certain colour! It could have happened back in the days when kings and emperors ruled. In ancient Rome only the emperor and his wife could have purple or gold clothes. In China, only the emperor could wear yellow. And in France, in the past, only a princess could wear a scarlet dress.
4. Today we can hardly imagine a world without this eager listener and loyal friend, the teddy bear. But why is it called Teddy? The story goes back to 1902, when Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United States. The press and the people fondly called him Teddy. Once on a hunting trip, he couldn’t bring himself to shoot a defenseless bear cub. The owners of a candy store in New York made a little toy bear cub and put it in their shop window with a handwritten notice saying “Teddy’s bear”. The bear became a hit with the public.
5. Pet names, like human ones, go in and out of fashion. According to Bairbre O’Malley, a London vet, they reflect larger trends in society. The computer boom, for example, has produced dogs called Mac, Apple and, for smaller breeds, Microchip, or Laptop. Hollywood’s influence has inspired names like Conan and Terminator for bull terriers and other strong breeds. Mr O’Malley also remarked that many animals he treated after road accidents were called Lucky.
6. One of the most popular tourist attractions today is Legoland Windsor, the newest theme park in Europe. It is a theme park and the theme is bricks. Lego bricks, to be specific. You know those little plastic toy bricks children use to build castles, bridges, all sorts of things. Some grown-ups play with Lego bricks, too. One hundred of them worked for two and a half years to design buildings, trains, cars, boats, fountains and people for Legoland Windsor.
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"A good book for children should simply be a good book in its own right." These are the words of Mollie Hunter, a well-known author of books for youngsters. Born and bred near Edinburgh, Mollie has devoted her talents to writing primarily for young people. She firmly believes that there is always and should always be a wider audience for any good book whatever its main market. In Mollie's opinion it is essential to make full use of language and she enjoys telling a story, which is what every writer should be doing: ''If you aren't telling a story, you're a very dead writer indeed,'' she says.
When Mollie was a child her home was still a village with buttercup meadows and strawberry fields – sadly now covered with modern houses. "I was once taken back to see it and I felt that somebody had lain dirty hands all over my childhood. I'll never go back," she said. "Never." ''When I set one of my books inScotland," she said, "I can recapture my romantic feelings as a child playing in those fields, or watching the village blacksmith at work. And that's important, because children now know so much so early that romance can't exist for them, as it did for us."
To this day, Mollie has a lively affection for children, which is reflected in the love she has for her writing. "When we have visitors with children the adults always say, "If you go to visit Mollie, she'll spend more time with the children." Molly believes that parents don't realize that children are much more interesting company and always have something new and unexpected to say.
1. In Mollie's opinion a good book should
А) be attractive to a wide audience.
B) be attractive primarily to youngsters.
C) be based on original ideas.
D) include a lot of description.
2. How does Mollie feel about what has happened to her birthplace?
3. In comparison with children of earlier years, Mollie feels that modern children are
А) more romantic.
B) better informed.
C) less keen to learn.
D) less interested in fiction.
4. Mollie's adult visitors generally discover that she
А) is a lively person.
B) is interesting company.
C) talks a lot about her work.
D) pays more attention to their children.
5. Mollie thinks that the parents
А) are not aware of their children’s gifts.
B) overestimate their children’s talents.
C) sometimes don’t understand what their children say.
D) don’t spend much time with their children.
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I had first become acquainted with my Italian friend by meeting him at certain great houses where he taught his own language and I taught drawing. All I then knew of the history of his life was that he had left Italy for political reasons; and that he had been for many years respectably established in London as a teacher.
Without being actually a dwarf – for he was perfectly well-proportioned from head to foot – Pesca was, I think, the smallest human being I ever saw. Remarkable anywhere, by his personal appearance, he was still further distinguished among the mankind by the eccentricity of his character. The ruling idea of Peska's life now was to show his gratitude to the country that had given him a shelter by doing his utmost to turn himself into an Englishman. The Professor aspired to become an Englishman in his habits and amusements, as well as in his personal appearance. Finding us distinguished, as a nation, by our love of athletic exercises, the little man, devoted himself to all our English sports and pastimes, firmly persuaded that he could adopt our national amusements by an effort of will the same way as he had adopted our national gaiters and our national white hat.
I had seen him risk his limbs blindly unlike others at a fox-hunt and in a cricket field; and soon afterwards I saw him risk his life, just as blindly, in the sea atBrighton.
We had met there accidentally, and were bathing together. If we had been engaged in any exercise peculiar to my own nation I should, of course, have looked after Pesca carefully; but as foreigners are generally quite as well able to take care of themselves in the water as Englishmen, it never occurred to me that the art of swimming might merely add one more to the list of manly exercises which the Professor believed that he could learn on the spot. Soon after we had both struck out from shore, I stopped, finding my friend did not
follow me, and turned round to look for him. To my horror and amazement,
I saw nothing between me and the beach but two little white arms which struggled for an instant above the surface of the water, and then disappeared from view. When I dived for him, the poor little man was lying quietly at the bottom, looking smaller than I had ever seen him look before.
When he had thoroughly recovered himself, his warm Southern nature broke through all artificial English restraints in a moment. He overwhelmed me with the wildest expressions of affection and in his exaggerated Italian way declared that he should never be happy again until he rendered me some service which I might remember to the end of my days.
Little did I think then – little did I think afterwards – that the opportunity of serving me was soon to come; that he was eagerly to seize it on the instant; and that by so doing he was to turn the whole current of my existence into a new channel. Yet so it was. If I had not dived for Professor Pesca when he lay under water, I should never, perhaps, have heard even the name of the woman, who now directs the purpose of my life.
1. Peska taught
2. Peska impressed people by being
3. Peska tried to become a true Englishman because he
A) was thankful to the country that had adopted him.
B) enjoyed Englishman's pastimes and amusements.
C) loved the way the English did athletic exercises.
D) was fond of the eccentric fashions of the English.
4. ‘… risk his limbs blindly’ means Peska
A) didn’t look where he went.
B) was unaware of danger from others.
C) caused a problem for others.
D) acted rather thoughtlessly.
5. The author didn't look after Peska carefully because
A) they both had been engaged in the peculiar English exercise.
B) foreigners were generally bathing not far from the shore.
C) the author was sure that Peska would learn swimming on the spot.
D) the author was sure that Peska was a very good swimmer.
6. Peska wanted to do the author some favour as
A) it was in his warm nature.
B) the author had saved his life.
C) the author was his best friend.
D) he wanted to look English.
7. Peska managed to
A) change the author’s life completely.
B) become English to the core.
C) meet a woman who later directed his life.
D) turn his existence into a new channel.
Pitcher, a confidential clerk in the office of Harvey Maxwell, allowed a look of mild interest and surprise when his employer briskly entered at half-past nine in company with a young lady. Miss Leslie had been Maxwell’s stenographer for a year. She was beautiful in a way that was decidedly unstenographic. On this morning she was softly and shyly radiant. Her eyes were dreamily bright, her expression a happy one, tinged with reminiscence. Pitcher, still mildly curious, noticed a difference in her ways this morning. Instead of going straight into the adjoining room, where her desk was, she stayed for a while, slightly irresolute, in the outer office. Once she moved over by Maxwell’s desk near enough for him to be aware of her presence.
The man sitting at that desk was no longer a man; it was a machine, moved by buzzing wheels and uncoiling springs.
“Well – what is it? Anything?” asked Maxwell sharply.
“Nothing,” answered the stenographer, moving away with a little smile.
This day was Harvey Maxwell’s busy day. Messenger boys ran in and out with messages and telegrams. Maxwell himself jumped from desk to door sweating. On the Exchange there were hurricanes and snowstorms and volcanoes, and those powerful disturbances were reproduced in miniature in Maxwell’s office. The rush and pace of business grew faster and fiercer. Share prices were falling and orders to sell them were coming and going and the man was working like some strong machine. Here was a world of finance, and there was no room in it for the human world or the world of nature.
When the luncheon hour came, Maxwell stood by his desk with a fountain pen over his right ear. His window was open. And through the window came a delicate, sweet smell of lilac that fixed the broker for a moment immovable. For this odour belonged to Miss Leslie; it was her own, and hers only. She was in the next room – twenty steps away.
“By George, I'll do it now,” said Maxwell half aloud. “ I’ll ask her now. I wonder why I didn’t do it long ago.” He dashed into the inner office and charged upon the desk of the stenographer. She looked at him with a smile.
“Miss Leslie,” he began hurriedly, “I have but a moment to spare. I want to say something in that moment. Will you be my wife? I haven’t had time to approach you in the ordinary way, but I really do love you.”
“Oh, what are you talking about?” exclaimed the young lady. She rose to her feet and gazed upon him, round-eyed.
“Don’t you understand?” said Maxwell. “I want you to marry me. I love you, Miss Leslie. I wanted to tell you, and I snatched a minute. They are calling me for the phone now. Tell them to wait a minute, Pitcher. Won’t you, Miss Leslie?”
The stenographer acted very strangely. She seemed overcome with amazement; then tears flowed from her wondering eyes; and then she smiled sunnily through them.
“I know now,” she said softly. “It is this old business that has driven everything else out of your head for the time. I was frightened at first. Don’t you remember, Harvey? We were married last evening at 8 o’clock in the Little Church Around the Corner.”
1. Harvey Maxwell was
A) a stenographer.
B) a clerk.
C) Pitcher’s boss.
D) Pitcher’s partner.
2. Pitcher was mildly interested and surprised because
A) Miss Leslie moved decidedly to Maxwell's desk.
B) Miss Leslie arrived with Maxwell.
C) Maxwell came late at half past ten.
D) Maxwell looked irresolute that morning.
3. It was Harvey Maxwell's hard day because
A) he had no one to help him.
B) all messenger boys had gone.
C) the weather was hot.
D) the Exchange was a busy place.
4. ‘On the Exchange there were hurricanes and snowstorms and volcanoes’ means
A) the Exchange was about to be destroyed.
B) the financial situation was difficult.
C) natural disasters often happened in that area.
D) those were powerful disturbances of nature.
5. Maxwell dashed into the inner office at lunch time because
A) he liked the lilac smell.
B) the smell reminded him of Miss Leslie.
C) Pitcher called him for a phone call.
D) he needed to send a message.
6. Harvey Maxwell made a proposal between phone calls because he
A) was rather pressed for time.
B) used to make business proposals in such a way.
C) always acted very strangely.
D) was afraid Miss Leslie would leave him.
7. Miss Leslie was astonished by the proposal because
A) she had never heard anyone make it in such a way.
B) she had never expected it from Harvey Maxwell.
C) she had married the man the day before.
D) it came too quickly and without warning.
The London Marathon celebrates its 23rd birthday. That is 23 years of stresses and strains, blisters and sore bits, and incredible tales. Somehow, yours truly has managed to run four of them. And I have medals to prove it. It seemed like a good idea at the time. I watched the inaugural London Marathon on March 29th, 1981. It seemed extraordinary that normal people would want to run 26 miles and 385 yards. And, it must be said, they looked strange and not quite steady at the end of it all. There are, indeed, terrible tales of people losing consciousness by the time they reach that glorious finishing line. But I was captivated. I knew I had to do it.
Three years later I was living in London, not far from Greenwich where the event begins, and it seemed the perfect opportunity to give it a go. I was only a short train ride from the starting line, but more than 26 miles from the finish. “Who cares?” I thought. By the end I did. The moment I crossed that finishing line, and had that medal placed around my neck, was one of the finest in my life. The sense of achievement was immense. It was a mad thing to do, and ultimately pointless. But knowing that I’d run a Marathon – that most historic of all distant races – felt incredible.
London provides one of the easiest of all the officially sanctioned marathons because most of it is flat. Yes, there are the cobblestones while running through the Tower of London, and there are the quiet patches where crowds are thin and you are crying out for some encouragement – those things matter to the alleged “fun” runners like myself, the serious runners don’t think of such things.
This year London will attract unprecedented number of athletes, a lot of title holders among them. It is set to witness what is probably the greatest field ever for a marathon. In the men’s race, for example, among numerous applicants there’s the holder of the world’s best time, Khalid Khannouchi of theUSA; the defending champion El Mouriz of Morocco; Ethiopia’s Olympic bronze-medallist Tesfaye Tola. And, making his marathon debut, is one of the finest long distance runners of all time Haile Gebrselassie.
Since 1981, almost half a million people have completed the London Marathon, raising more than $125 million for charity. For the majority of the runners, this is what it is all about. It is for charity, for fun, for self-development. It is a wonderful day. I have run it with poor training, with proper training. And I have always loved it.
It’s crazy, and it’s one of the greatest things I’ve ever done. If you want to feel as though you’ve achieved something, run a marathon.
1. Participation in the London Marathon resulted for the author in
A) stresses and strains.
B) blisters and sore bits.
C) memorable medals.
D) incredible tales.
2. When the author watched the end of the first marathon he saw people who were
A) extraordinary steady.
B) feeling weak and exhausted.
C) losing consciousness.
D) having a glorious time.
3. The reason for the author’s participation in the marathon was the fact that he
A) was fascinated by it.
B) lived not far from its finishing line.
C) wanted to receive a medal.
D) wanted to do something incredible.
4. “By the end I did” means that the author
A) found the distance suitable.
B) found the distance challenging.
C) decided to take part in the marathon.
D) eventually took a train to the finish.
5. According to the author, the London Marathon is one of the easiest because
A) it goes through the Tower of London.
B) there are quiet patches without crowds.
C) many “fun” runners participate in it.
D) its course does not slope up or down.
6. “… the greatest field ever for a marathon” means that the marathon
A) will take place on a big field.
B) is to be run by the famous runners only.
C) will be witnessed by more people.
D) will welcome a huge number of sportsmen.
7. According to the author, one should run the London Marathon to
A) raise money for charity.
B) get some training.
C) feel self-fulfillment.
D) have fun in a crazy way.