Прочитайте рассказ и выполните задания 1–7. В каждом задании обведите букву A, B, C или D, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
To Become Wealthy
As a kid, I always wanted to become wealthy. I knew if I could achieve this, I would be able to consider myself successful. At the time, I had no worries and felt my happiness would be based on whether I could fulfill all my needs and wants. My simple philosophy of that time was if I was rich, I would definitely be content with my life.
My father always stressed his belief that happiness includes much more than money. I can remember him lecturing me about how money does not make an individual happy; other things in life such as: health, family, friends, and memorable experiences make a person genuinely happy. At this time in my life, I took what my dad said for granted and did not give any thought to his words. All I could see was the great life my cousins had because they had everything a kid ever dreamed of.
At a young age, I noticed society was extremely materialistic. The media seemed to portray the wealthy as happy people who add value to our society. My opinions did not change; in high school I still sought a career that would eventually yield a high salary. I still felt that the possibility of living life from paycheck to paycheck would automatically translate into my unhappiness. However, things changed when I decided to take an internship in the accounting department for the summer after my second year of college.
Starting the first day on the job in the accounting department, I found myself extremely bored. I was forced to do monotonous work, such as audit eight thousand travel and expense reports for a potential duplicate. In addition, I had to relocate away from friends and family in order to accept the position. I was earning the money I always wanted; however, I noticed that having money to spend when you are by yourself was not satisfying.
I began to think back to what my dad always said. After a few months in the job, I truly realized that money does not bring happiness. A more satisfying experience for me would have been doing an ordinary summer job for far less money. For me to understand that concept, it took an experience as painful as this one. I often contemplated how much money it would take me to do this as my everyday job. I concluded, whatever the salary for this position I would never be capable of fulfilling a happy life and making a career out of this job.
As I looked forward to the summer to draw to a close, I truly comprehended the meaning of my dad’s words. Contrary to my prior beliefs, I firmly believe through experience that money cannot make a person happy. The term “wealth” is a broad term, and I believe the key to happiness is to become wealthy in great memories, friends, family, and health. This I believe.
1. In his childhood the narrator’s idea of happiness was to
А) get what he wanted.
B) live an interesting life.
C) be an influential person.
D) make other people happy.
2. The narrator heard what his father used to say, but did not
А) believe him.
B) agree with him.
C) understand him.
D) think over his words.
3. From his early childhood till he finished school the narrator was convinced that
А) society was extremely unfair.
B) media added value to society.
C) money was the only thing that ensured happiness.
D) the wealthy could not spend money properly.
4. After the second year in the college the narrator decided to
А) start to work.
B) quit his studies.
C) change the college.
D) take a summer course.
5. The narrator’s internship proved that
А) it was not a money-making job.
B) he had chosen the wrong job.
C) he could not cope with professional tasks.
D) he had to get rid of his family and friends to keep the position.
6. It became obvious to the narrator that he
А) needed to think of another career.
B) would like to work only in summer.
C) would like to have a higher position.
D) preferred ordinary non-professional work.
7. The summer for the narrator was
А) monotonous and lonely.
B) dragged out and boring.
C) dynamic and satisfying.
D) difficult but inspirational.
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The Joy and Enthusiasm of Reading
I believe in the absolute and unlimited liberty of reading. I believe in wandering through the huge stacks of books and picking out the first thing that strikes me. I believe in choosing books based on the dust jacket. I believe in reading books because others dislike them or find them dangerous, or too thick to spend their free time on, or too difficult to understand. I believe in choosing the hardest book imaginable. I believe in reading what others have to say about this difficult book, and then making up my own mind, agreeing or disagreeing with what I have read and understood.
Part of this has to do with Mr. Buxton, who taught me Shakespeare in the 10th grade. We were reading Macbeth. Mr. Buxton, who probably had better things to do, nonetheless agreed to meet one night to go over the text line by line. The first thing he did was point out the repetition of motifs. For example, the reversals of things ("fair is foul and foul is fair"). Then there was the association of masculinity with violence in the play.
What Mr. Buxton did not tell me was what the play meant. He left the conclusions to me. The situation was much the same with my history teacher in 11th grade, Mr. Flanders, who encouraged me to have my own relationship with historical events and my own attitude to them. He often quoted famous historians in the process. I especially liked the one who said, "Those who forget their history have no future."
High school was followed by college, where I read Umberto Eco's Role of the Reader, in which it is said that the reader completes the text, that the text is never finished until it meets this careful and engaged reader. The open texts, Eco calls them. In college, I read some of the great Europeans and Latin Americans. All the works I read were open texts. It was an exciting experience. Besides, I got familiar with wonderful works of literary criticism.
There are those critics, of course, who insist that there are right ways and wrong ways to read every book. No doubt they arrived at these beliefs through their own adventures in the stacks. Perhaps their adventures were not so exciting or romantic. And these are important questions for philosophers of every character. But yet I know only what joy and enthusiasm about reading have taught me, in bookstores new and used. They have taught me not to be afraid of something new, unusual or non-traditional, not to deny it but embrace it and try to understand even if you cannot agree with it. Not to stay within the boundaries but always seek for something new and enjoy every second of this creative process and be happy every time you get some result, no matter how positive or negative.
I believe there is not now and never will be an authority who can tell me how to interpret, how to read, how to find the pearl of literary meaning in all cases. There exist thousands of versions, interpretations, colours and shadows. You could spend a lifetime thinking about a sentence, and making it your own. In just this way, I believe in the freedom to see literature, history, truth, unfolding ahead of me like a book whose spine has just now been cracked.
1. The unlimited liberty of reading for the narrator means
А) access to different types of books.
B) freedom in choosing and interpreting books.
C) possibility to challenge other opinions on the book.
D) opportunity to select what to read according to the mood.
2. The narrator thinks that his love of reading
А) is an inborn quality.
B) developed early at school.
C) was initially fostered by Mr. Buxton.
D) is all due to the efforts of his Shakespeare teacher.
3. The narrator gives credit to Mr. Buxton for teaching him how to
А) love classical literature.
B) read Shakespeare aloud.
C) interpret stylistic devices.
D) find the meaning of a book for oneself.
4. The history teacher quoted famous historians to prove that people
А) are often blind or deaf to learning.
B) understand historical texts too literally.
C) can’t understand the meaning of historical events.
D) should learn from history not to make similar mistakes.
5. According to Umberto Eco, an open text is a text
А) commented on by the author.
B) plus the reader’s attitude to it.
C) that the author has not finished.
D) with different variants of an end.
6. Some critics say about text interpretation that
А) only philosophers should interpret texts.
B) people should enjoy books but not interpret them.
C) there are several ways to interpret a text.
D) there is the right interpretation to every book.
7. The narrator believes that
А) it is impossible to interpret good writers.
B) interpreting is collective intellectual work.
C) authorities in interpreting will appear in future.
D) one should find a proper interpretation by oneself.
Unleashing the Power of Creativity
I have always been an optimist and I suppose that is rooted in my belief that the power of creativity and intelligence can make the world a better place. And the life did not disappoint me – many times it proved me right.
For as long as I can remember, I have loved learning new things and solving problems. So when I sat down at a computer for the first time in the seventh grade, I was hooked. It was a clunky old Teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers we have today. But it changed my life.
When my friend Paul Allen and I started Microsoft 30 years ago, we had a vision of "a computer on every desk and in every home," which probably sounded a little too optimistic at a time when most computers were the size of refrigerators and cost as much as a new modern Japanese car. But we believed that personal computers would change the world. And they have.
And now, after 30 years, I am still as inspired by computers as I was back in the seventh grade.
I believe that computers are the most incredible tool we can use to feed our curiosity and inventiveness – to help us solve problems that even the smartest people could not solve on their own.
Computers have transformed how we learn, giving kids everywhere a window into all of the world's knowledge. And the only thing these youngsters should do is make the right choice, which is not always an easy choice. Computers are helping us build communities around the things we care about and to stay close to the people who are important to us, no matter where they live -- next door or on the other side of the world.
Like my friend Warren Buffett, I feel particularly lucky to do something every day that I love doing. He calls it "tap-dancing to work." My job at Microsoft is as challenging as ever, but what makes me "tap-dance to work" is when we show people something new, like a computer that can recognize your handwriting or your speech, or gestures, or one that can store a lifetime's worth of photos or home videos and they say, "I didn't know you could do that with a PC!"
But for all the cool things that a person can do with a PC, there are lots of other ways we can put our creativity and intelligence to work to improve our world. There are still far too many people in the world whose most basic needs go unmet. Every year, for example, millions of people die from diseases that are easy to prevent or treat in the developed world.
I believe that my own good fortune brings with it a responsibility to give back to the world. My wife, Melinda, and I have committed ourselves to improving health and education in a way that can help as many people as possible.
As a father, I believe that the death of a child in Africa is no less bitter or tragic than the death of a child anywhere else. And that it does not take much to make an immense difference in these children's lives.
I am still very much an optimist, and I believe that progress on even the world's toughest problems is possible – and it is happening every day. We are seeing new drugs for deadly diseases, new diagnostic tools, and new attention paid to the health problems in the developing world.
I am excited by the possibilities I see for medicine. And I believe that through our natural inventiveness, creativity and willingness to solve tough problems, we are going to see some amazing achievements in this area in my lifetime.
1. The narrator considers himself an optimist as he
А) has a strong religious belief.
B) believes the world is perfect.
C) believes in the power of human mind.
D) knows how to develop one's creativity.
2. After the narrator first used a computer he
А) got fascinated with its size.
B) used it to solve his problems.
C) could no longer do without it.
D) was amazed at its unlimited possibilities.
3. The initial dream of the narrator and his friend proved to be
C) wishful thinking.
D) optimistic but unreal.
4. The narrator believes that computers are perfect to
А) be human friends.
B) create new fields of knowledge.
C) provide people with creative ideas.
D) be used as an instrument to solve human problems.
5. The narrator "tap-dances to work" because he enjoys
А) meeting new people.
B) watching dancing contests.
C) teaching people basic computer skills.
D) doing his job very much.
6. The narrator believes that
А) a lot of people in the world need help.
B) it is impossible to make the world better.
C) people in the world have too many needs.
D) the computer is the only way to improve the world.
7. The narrator sees the development of
А) new unknown diseases.
B) new methods in education.
C) new technologies in medicine.
D) new creative ways of thinking.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1–6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A–G. Одна из частей в списке А–G лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
Fire crews hunt escaped hamster
Eight firefighters have been called in to help find an escaped hamster. Two crews used a chocolate-covered camera and a vacuum cleaner1 _______________________, called Fudgie, at the home of a six-year-old girl in Dunbar, Scotland.
The girl’s mother said: "We came down for breakfast and discovered Fudgie had opened the top lid of her cage and had made her way into the kitchen and we think she has gone 2 _______________________."
The fire crews spent five hours trying to recover the pet after it ran down a hole in the kitchen floor. But, the hamster still refused3 _______________________.
In the search for Fudgie, the firefighters took the family cooker and gas pipes apart. They also dropped a mini-camera coated with chocolate under the floorboards.
They then hoped to take out the hamster using a vacuum cleaner. Despite all their efforts, they failed to find Fudgie.
In the end, the firefighters put another camera down the hole 4 _______________________, connected to the screen of the family home computer, to see if Fudgie appeared. Besides, the girl and her parents regularly dropped food 5 _______________________.
At last, after eight days the hamster returned to her cage safe and sound. She crawled from the hole in the kitchen floor early in the morning. It was the girl’s father who first found Fudgie 6 _______________________.
The girl said that day it was like Christmas morning for her. Her parents added that they too felt extremely happy when Fudgie had finally returned.
A. through a small hole in the floor
B. through the hole for the hamster
C. and locked the runaway hamster
D. to come out of the hole
E. to look after the pet
F. to try and locate the missing hamster
G. and left it under the floorboards
Speed of eating is 'key to obesity'
If you eat very quickly, it may be enough to increase your risk of being overweight, research suggests.
Osaka University scientists looked at the eating habits of 3,000 people. Just about half of them told researchers that they 1 _______________________. Compared with those who did not eat quickly, fast-eating men were 84% more likely to be overweight, and women were 100% more likely to2 _______________________.
Japanese scientists said that there were a number of reasons why eating fast 3 _______________________. They said it could prevent the work of a signalling system which tells your brain to stop eating because your stomach is full. They said: "If you eat quickly you basically fill your stomach before the system has a chance to react, so you 4 _______________________."
The researchers also explained that a mechanism that helps make us fat today, developed with evolution and helped people get more food in the periods when they were short of it. The scientists added that the habit of eating fast could be received from one's parents genes or 5 _______________________.
They said that, if possible, children should be taught to 6 _______________________, and allowed to stop when they felt full up at mealtimes. "The advice of our grandmothers about chewing everything 20 times might be true - if you take a bit more time eating, it could have a positive influence on your weight."
A. just overfill your stomach
B. could be bad for your weight
C. have a habit of eating quickly
D. linked to obesity
E. eat as slowly as possible
F. put on weight
G. learned at a very early age
Hi-tech brings families together
Technology is helping families stay in touch like never before, says a report carried out in the US.
Instead of driving people apart, mobile phones and the Internet are 1 _______________________. The research looked at the differences in technology use between families with children and single adults. It found that traditional families have more hi-tech gadgets in their home 2 _______________________. Several mobile phones were found in 89% of families and 66% had a high-speed Internet connection. The research also found that 58% of families have more 3 _______________________.
Many people use their mobile phone to keep in touch and communicate with parents and children. Seventy percent of couples,4 _______________________, use it every day to chat or say hello. In addition, it was found that 42% of parents contact their children via their mobile every day.
The growing use of mobile phones, computers and the Internet means that families no longer gather round the TV to spend time together. 25% of those who took part in the report said they now spend less time 5 _______________________. Only 58% of 18-29 year olds said they watched TV every day. Instead the research found that 52% of Internet users who live with their families go online 6 _______________________ several times a week and 51% of parents browse the web with their children.
"Some analysts have worried that new technologies hurt families, but we see that technology allows for new kinds of connectedness built around cell phones and the Internet," said the report.
A. than any other group
B. watching television
C. in the company of someone else
D. than two computers in the home
E. communicated with their families
F. helping them communicate
G. owning a mobile
The Power Of 'Hello'
I work at a company where there are hundreds of employees. I know most of them and almost all of them know me. It is all based on one simple principle: I believe every single person deserves to be acknowledged, 1 ___________________.
When I was about 10 years old, I was walking down the street with my mother. She stopped to speak to Mr. Lee. I knew I could see Mr. Lee any time around the neighborhood, 2 ___________________.
After we passed Mr. Lee, my mother said something that has stuck with me from that day until now. She said, "You let that be the last time you ever walk by somebody and not open up your mouth to speak, because even a dog can wag its tail 3 ___________________". That phrase sounds simple, but it has been a guidepost for me and the foundation of who I am. I started to see that when I spoke to someone, they spoke back. And that felt good. It is not just something I believe in; 4 ___________________. I believe that every person deserves to feel someone acknowledges their presence, no matter how unimportant they may be.
At work, I always used to say 'hello' to the founder of the company and ask him how our business was doing. But I was also speaking to the people in the cafe, and asked how their children were doing. I remembered after a few years of passing by the founder, I had the courage to ask him for a meeting. We had a great talk. At a certain point, I asked him 5 ___________________. He said, "If you want to, you can get all the way to this seat."
I have become vice president, but that has not changed the way I approach people. I speak to everyone I see, no matter where I am. I have learned that speaking to people creates a pathway into their world, 6 ___________________.
A. it has become a way of life
B. when it passes you on the street
C. when you see him and talk to him
D. and it lets them come into mine, too
E. so I did not pay any attention to him
F. however small or simple the greeting is
G. how far he thought I could go in his company
Friendship And Love
A strong friendship takes a significant amount of time to develop. It will not just magically mature overnight. A friendship involves committing oneself to help another person 1 _______________________. I believe that nothing can replace a true friend, not material objects, or money, and definitely not a boy.
I met this guy a couple summers ago who I ended up spending almost all of my free time with. His parents did not approve of our dating because of our age difference, 2 _______________________. He had told me the day we met that he had joined the air force and would leave for overseas that coming October. After three months had past, the time came when he had to leave. This left me feeling completely alone.
I turned to my friends for support, but to my surprise, 3 _______________________. I had spent so much time with this guy and so little time with them, that they did not feel sorry for me when he left. For so long they had become the only constant in my life, and I had taken them for granted over something4 _______________________.
When my boyfriend came back, our relationship changed. I tried to fix all the aspects in my life that had gone so wrong in the previous six months.
This experience taught me that true friendships will only survive if one puts forth effort to make them last. Keeping friends close will guarantee that5 _______________________. When a relationship falls apart, a friend will always do everything in their power to make everything less painful. As for me, I try to keep my friends as close as I can. I know they will always support me in whatever I do, and to them, 6 _______________________.
A. but we did anyway
B. whenever a need arises
C. they did not really care
D. whenever they need your help
E. I could not guarantee would even last
F. I am eternally grateful for a second chance
G. someone will always have a shoulder to cry on
Natural Links In a Long Chain of Being
I believe we are not alone.
Even if I am on the other side of the world from the farmhouse I live in, I still dream of the ancient vines out the window, and the shed out back that my grandfather's father built in 1870 with eucalyptus trunks. As long as I can recreate these images, 1 _______________________.
All of us need some grounding in our modern world of constant moving, buying, selling, meeting and leaving. Some find constancy in religion, others in friends or community. But we need some daily signposts that we are not different, not better, 2 _______________________.
For me, this house, farm, these ancient vines are those roots. Although I came into this world alone and will leave alone, I am not alone.
There are ghosts of dozens of conversations in the hallways, stories I remember about buying new plows that now rust in the barnyard and ruined crops from the same vines 3 _______________________.
All of us are natural links in a long chain of being, and that I need to know what time of day it is, what season is coming, whether the wind is blowing north or from the east, and if the moon is still full tomorrow night, 4 _______________________.
The physical world around us constantly changes, 5 _______________________. We must struggle in our brief existence to find some transcendent meaning and so find relief in the knowledge 6 _______________________.
You may find that too boring, living with the past as present. I find it refreshing. There is an old answer to every new problem, that wise whispers of the past are with us. If we just listen and remember, we are not alone; we have been here before.
A. I never quite leave home
B. but human nature does not
C. that we are now harvesting
D. but we as well as our heart did not
E. not worse than those who came before us
F. just as the farmers who came before me did
G. that our ancestors have gone through this before
Установите соответствие между заголовками A
Н и текстами 1
7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую буквутолько один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
Too much choice
Fast food is unhealthy
Growing in popularity
A new way to buy
Good way to meet
When you are tired and don’t want to cook, just pick up the phone. Restaurants are expensive and take some time and effort to reach if you don’t live in the centre of town. Ordering food for home delivery is cheap and these days there is a huge choice. Indian and Chinese are the most popular but I prefer to get in a pizza.
A school group on a skiing holiday to Italy narrowly avoided disaster when their coach left the road and fell eighty meters into a valley. Trees slowed down the falling coach and because of the fresh new snow the vehicle landed quite softly. Amazingly no one was injured.
A teenager from London is making news around the world. On his recent holiday in Australia he set off without his mobile phone. Experts are amazed that he is still alive after walking for fourteen days, surviving extreme temperatures and living off the land. However, a lot of Australians are unhappy with him. The rescue cost is estimated at more than 100,000 dollars.
You can buy almost anything, new or second hand, on the internet. On one site you can offer the price you want to pay for something. Whoever offers the highest price can buy that item. Recently I made the highest offer for a nearly new pair of skis. However, I only paid half of what they would have cost new in a shop.
Making new friends on the internet makes so much sense. You can see someone’s photo and read if they share your interests and opinions. The important thing is you can spend time getting to know people who are attractive to you and looking for the same things in life that you are. Still, for personal safety, most sites recommend that in person you meet initially in a public place like a cafe or a gallery.
I like eating out but some restaurants have huge menus. And usually every item sounds mouth watering. The trouble is I like to read about everything on offer and sometimes waiters wait for me rather than on me! The other issue is how they can offer so much whilst maintaining quality? I’d rather take one of five options knowing that each one was brilliant.
“Facebook” is a social networking website that has 250 million members and despite lots of criticism by employers, governments and media, continues to attract thousands of new users daily. In spite of claims of concerns about privacy, safety and wasting time at work, “Facebook” is one of the most rapidly establishing phenomena of recent years.