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Shades make difference
Recipes for all tastes
Secrets of storing for better taste
Secrets of popularity
From fields to tables
Element of culture
From local use to international trade
The first mentioning of coffee goes as far back as the ninth century. At first, coffee remained largely confined to Ethiopia, where its native beans were first cultivated. But the Arab world began expanding its trade horizons, and the beans moved into northern Africa and were mass-produced. From there, the beans entered the Indian and European markets, and the popularity of the beverage spread.
While processing, a coffee bean absorbs heat, and the color shifts from green to yellow and then to varying shades of brown. Depending on the color, the beans are labeled from light to very dark. Darker beans are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and the flavor is more sugary. Lighter beans have more caffeine, which result in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor.
Coffee is one of the world's most widely consumed beverages. People often have it in the morning, when they feel tired or want to stay awake in the evening. Many office workers take a coffee break when they have low energy. It happens because coffee contains caffeine, a bitter, white crystalline chemical that has a vitalizing effect in humans.
For the best quality of brewed coffee it is necessary to buy whole beans and grind them before brewing. If you keep an open package of beans in the freezer it remains fresh for a month. Ground coffee should be used up within two weeks and also kept in a tightly closed container in the refrigerator. But an absolutely fresh coffee can be made from green beans that just need to be roasted first.
For occasions when one wants to enjoy the flavor of coffee with almost no stimulation, decaffeinated coffee is available. It is processed from beans while they are still green by either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them. Decaffeinated coffee usually loses some flavor over regular coffee, but it looks the same and can easily mislead inexperienced users by its smell and even taste.
The Adoption of coffee created a unique social atmosphere that depends heavily upon coffee, espresso in particular. Coffeehouses, the places where people can get together, have traditionally been used not only for drinking coffee, but also as artistic and intellectual centers. For examples cafes of Pariswhich are popular tourist attractions because they are also associated with artists, intellectuals and writers.
A coffee bean is the seed of the coffee plant, which ripens around eight months after the emergence of the flower, by changing color from green to red, and they should be harvested. In most countries, the coffee crop is picked by hand. After this coffee beans are wet processed and then dried. Finally the last layers of dry skin are removed; the beans are sorted by size and density, roasted and sold to consumers throughout the world.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1–6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A–G. Одна из частей в списке А–G – лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
My family moved to Rockaway, New Jersey in the summer of 1978. It was there that my dreams of stardom began.
I was nine years old. Heather Lambrix lived next door, and she and I became best friends. I thought she was so lucky 1 _______________________. She took tap and jazz and got to wear cool costumes with bright sequences and makeup and perform on stage. I went to all of her recitals and2 _______________________.
My living room and sometimes the garage were my stage. I belonged to a cast of four, which consisted of Heather, my two younger sisters, Lisa and Faith, and I. Since I was the oldest and the bossiest, I was the director. Heather came with her own costumes 3 _______________________. We choreographed most of our dance numbers as we went along. Poor Faith … we would throw her around 4 _______________________. She was only about four or five … and so agile. We danced around in our bathing suits to audiocassettes and records from all the Broadway musicals. We’d put a small piece of plywood on the living room carpet, 5 _______________________. And I would imitate her in my sneakers on the linoleum in the hall. I was a dancer in the making.
My dad eventually converted a part of our basement into a small theater. He hung two “spotlights” and a sheet for a curtain. We performed dance numbers to tunes like “One” and “The Music and the Mirror” from A Chorus Line. I sang all the songs from Annie. I loved to sing, 6 _______________________. I just loved to sing. So I belted out songs like “Tomorrow”, “Maybe” and “What I Did For Love.” I knew then, this is what I wanted to do with my life.
and I designed the rest
and I was star struck
because she got to go to dance lessons
like she was a rag doll
whether I was good at it or not
wished I, too, could be on stage
so Heather could do her tap routine
The Show Begins
My Uncle Jim took me to all the Broadway shows in New York City, and I was star struck! Actually he wasn’t my real uncle – that’s just what we called him. He was a close friend of my parents. He was a bit stocky with red hair, 1 _______________________.
I remember the theaters on Broadway, 2 _______________________. The curtains were made of this real heavy, dark red material. There were huge chandelier lights hanging from the ceiling. The walls were dark, paneled wood. The seats were red and cushy 3 _______________________.
The orchestra sat at the base of the stage in a pit. I usually went down to the front to see the musicians 4 _______________________. They were all crammed into such a tiny space. I played the flute myself and my dad kept encouraging me that if I kept it up, 5 _______________________. But truly, I didn’t want to be tucked away down there. I wanted to be on top, front and center.
Most people dressed rather finely, and certain fragrances took center stage as various women passed by. The sounds of the audience6 _______________________ at their seats were clearly heard while last minute patrons filled in. There was electricity in the air and then the lights would go down and up, and you knew it was time for the show to get started. The lights dimmed. The music began. And you were swept up into a whole new world. I loved it!
I could be playing down there someday
and set real close together
which were so old and posh
and he had a beard and moustache
I wasn’t that good at music
getting ready and warming up
laughing and chattering away
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15–А21. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
I am in Birmingham, sitting in a cafe opposite a hairdresser’s. I’m trying to find the courage to go in and book an appointment. I’ve been here three quarters of an hour and I am on my second large cappuccino. The table I’m sitting at has a wobble, so I’ve spilt some of the first cup and most of the second down the white trousers I was so proud of as I swanked in front of the mirror in my hotel room this morning.
I can see the hairdressers or stylists as they prefer to be called, as they work. There is a man with a ponytail who is perambulating around the salon, stopping now and then to frown and grab a bank of customer’s hair. There are two girl stylists: one has had her white blonde hair shaved and then allowed it explode into hundreds of hedgehog’s quills; the other has hair any self-respecting woman would scalp for: thick and lustrous. All three are dressed in severe black. Even undertakers allow themselves to wear a little white on the neck and cuffs, but undertakers don’t take their work half as seriously, and there lies the problem. I am afraid of hairdressers.
When I sit in front of the salon mirror stuttering and blushing, and saying that I don’t know what I want, I know I am the client from hell. Nobody is going to win Stylist of the year with me as a model.
‘Madam’s hair is very th …’,they begin to say ‘thin’, think better of it and change it for ‘fine’—ultimately, coming out with the hybrid word ‘thine’. I have been told my hair is ‘thine’ many times. Are they taught to use it at college? Along with other conversational openings, depending on the season: ‘Done your Christmas shopping?’ ‘Going away for Easter?’ ‘Booked your summer holiday?’ ‘You are brown, been way?’ ‘Nights are drawing in, aren’t they?’ ‘Going away for Christmas?’
I am hopeless at small talk (and big talk). I’m also averse to looking at my face in a mirror for an hour and a half. I behave as though I am a prisoner on the run.
I’ve looked at wigs in stores, but I am too shy to try them on, and I still remember the horror of watching a bewigged man jump into a swimming pool and then seeing what looked like a medium sized rodent break the surface and float on the water. He snatched at his wig, thrust it anyhow on top of his head and left the pool. I didn’t see him for the rest of the holiday.
There is a behavior trait that a lot of writers share—it is called avoidance activity. They will do anything to avoid starting to write: clean a drain, phone their mentally confused uncle in Peru, change the cat’s litter tray. I’m prone to this myself, in summer I deadhead flowers, even lobelia. In winter I’ll keep a fire going stick by stick, anything to put off the moment of scratching marks on virgin paper.
I am indulging an avoidance activity now. I’ve just ordered another cappuccino, I’ve given myself a sever talking: For God’s sake, woman! You are forty-seven years of age. Just cross the road, push the salon door open, and ask for an appointment!
It didn’t work. I’m now in my room, and I have just given myself a do-it-yourself hairdo, which consisted of a shampoo, condition and trim, with scissors on my Swiss army knife.
I can’t wait to get back to the Toni & Guy salon in Leicester. The staff there haven’t once called my hair ‘thine’ and they can do wonders with the savagery caused by Swiss army knife scissors.
The narrator was afraid to enter the hairdresser’s because she
had spilt coffee on her white trousers.
doubted the qualification of local stylists.
was strangely self-conscious.
was pressed for time.
Watching the stylists, the narrator concluded that they
were too impulsive.
had hair anyone would envy.
had strange hair-dos themselves.
attached too much importance to their ‘craft’.
The narrator calls herself ‘the client from hell’ mainly because she
doesn't like to look at herself in the mirror.
never knows what she wants.
is too impatient to sit still.
is too demanding.
The narrator doesn’t like stylists as they
are too predictable in their conversation.
have once suggested that she should try a wig.
are too insensitive to clients wishes.
are too talkative.
According to the narrator the avoidance activity is
common to all writers.
mostly performed in winter.
talking to oneself.
a trick to postpone the beginning of work.
The narrator finally
talked herself into going and fixing an appointment.
got her hair done at a hotel.
cut her hair after shampooing it.
spoilt her hair completely.
The last paragraph means that the Toni &Guy salon in Leicester is the
only hairdresser’s she has ever risked going to.
salon she trusts and is not afraid to go to.
place where she is a special client.
the first place she has ever tried.