Управление финансами

1. Адресная помощь
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3. Детское пособие
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5. Льготы
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16. Пособие на первого ребенка

Управление финансами
егэ ЕГЭ 2018    Психологические тесты Интересные тесты   Изменения 2018 Изменения 2018
папка Главная » ЕГЭ 2018 » Английский язык » Чтение

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22

Прочитайте отрывок из романа и выполните задания 1 – 7, выбирая букву A, B, C или D. Установите соответствие номера задания выбранному вами варианту ответа.

I like my house and my bed and my shower. I do not like camping. I guess that means I’m weird. Men are supposed to like camping. When I was eight, my father took me on our first and last camping trip together. It was the worst weekend of my life. It was freezing cold. It rained. We went for a hike, and I got lost. My dad had tried to teach me how to use a compass. We walked for a mile while he talked about north, south, east and west. I was cold and bored, so I didn’t listen very well. He left me with the compass and told me to find my way back. My dad says I wasn’t lost for very long. It felt like a whole day.

My company recently transferred me to Denver, Colorado. My new co-workers have invited me to go hiking or camping several times since I arrived. I keep making excuses, because I do not want to tell them the truth. My buddy from Texas thinks I should go over it, because I’m not eight anymore. I’m afraid that if I go, I will make a complete fool of myself. If I don’t go, they will quit asking. If they quit asking, I won’t have any buddies to hang out with. Back home my buddies and I played golf every other Saturday. I miss golf. But here wilderness stuff is what people do for fun.

I finally decided I would give it a try. They made plans to hike in the Rocky Mountain National Park this weekend. After work, I found the nearest wilderness shop. The salesperson thought I had lost my mind, but boy he had a big smile on his face. I bought one of almost everything, just in case. I even bought a wilderness guide. I think I could survive on Mount Everest wearing the coat he sold me. I went home and read all the manuals. I practiced setting up a tent in the backyard. I wore my new hiking boots around the house until I got a blister.

After packing my car Friday morning, I could not see out the back of my Jeep Cherokee. Everything I bought was crammed inside. We decided to caravan toEstes Park and then hike up Beaver Meadow Trail. I wondered if we would get lost. But I just wanted to play it cool and follow along.

After work, we went in the parking lot to discuss who would lead the caravan. As soon as they saw my Jeep, they started giving me a hard time. “Are ya movin’ in, Tom?” “Movin’ in where?” “To the woods”. They all laughed. “Oh that. Just wanted to be prepared.” They raised their eyebrows and gave me the OK sign. I felt like a complete idiot. “You should have told us. We would have left everything we own at home”. “Very funny. Bunch of comedians.”

On the way to Estes Park, I tried to relax. I tried to think macho thoughts. And then it started to rain. I panicked. All I could think about was being eight years old, alone in the woods, cold and hungry. The guys didn’t seem bothered by the rain. In fact, they seemed to enjoy it. We all put on our backpacks. Once again, I stood out. My backpack looked bright and spotless. I forgot to rub it in the dirt and stomp on it. The price tag was still hanging from the zipper. My backpack was the only one dripping with gadgets. They all stared at me.

On the way up Beaver Meadow Trail, the rain started to pour. It was cold and harsh. I removed the Mount Everest coat from my waist and put it on. One of my gadgets was a small, sturdy umbrella. I pulled it off the hook, opened it, and held it in front of my face. The waterproof gloves I bought felt toasty warm. I looked around at my macho friends. They were checking out my backpack. I suddenly felt more confident. They looked miserable, and I almost felt sorry for them. When it started to hail, we moved off the trail.

I removed my backpack. A rolled up tent was attached to the bottom with straps of Velcro. They didn’t laugh this time. It took us 30 minutes, but we finally put the tent together. It was not big enough for five people. Somehow, we squeezed inside anyway. After several awkward moments, someone said “So what else you got in that backpack, Tom?” We spent the next hour joking and laughing and eating beef jerky. I told them all about my first camping experience. I also told them that I miss playing golf. They said they would give it a try sometime. I decided camping might not be so bad after all.

1. Tom believes that he is weird because he

A) expects to sleep in a comfortable bed when camping.

B) didn’t like camping when he was eight years old.

C) doesn’t like the thing other people expect him to enjoy.

D) didn’t like to spend weekends with his father in his childhood.

2. Tom got lost on a hike because

A) his father hadn’t explained to him how to use a compass.

B) his father had left him alone to teach him a lesson.

C) he wanted to make his father feel sorry for him.

D) he had paid no attention to what his father was telling him.

3. Tom isn’t quite happy in Denver because

A) he feels a complete fool in the company of his co-workers.

B) he dislikes the leisure time activities of his new colleagues.

C) his new colleagues have quit inviting him to go hiking or camping.

D) there are no men whom he would like to become his buddies.

4. The salesperson thought Tom had lost his mind because

A) Tom wanted to climb Mount Everest without any previous experience.

B) Tom had bought a lot of unnecessary things.

C) no one had ever bought so many manuals.

D) Tom had bought outrageously expensive hiking equipment.

5. Tom’s colleagues started giving him a hard time because they

A) thought he had too many things in his jeep.

B) were envious of his Jeep Cherokee and hiking equipment.

C) believed he was a complete idiot.

D) thought he couldn’t lead the caravan.

6. When everyone stared at his backpack Tom wished he

A) had bought a cheaper one.

B) had removed some of the gadgets.

C) hadn’t bought such a bright one.

D) had made it look old and used.

7. Tom found his camping experience not so bad after all because

A) it taught him to appreciate nature’s beauty.

B) he realized that camping might go well with playing sports.

C) he enjoyed the company of his co-workers.

D) he liked eating beef cooked over a campfire.

Установите соответствие тем A-H текстам 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.

















1. Ask your parents for permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.

2. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy.

3. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour.

4. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.

5. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.

6. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover.

7. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.








Установите соответствие тем  H текстам 1– 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.


Musical performance


Film for all ages


Attractive landscape


Exciting hobby


Perfect holidays


Colourful festival


Portrait of a girl


Interesting book

1. This is a full-length (ninety minutes) cartoon, which is entertaining for both adults and children over six. The animation and colour are of very high quality and the story has lots of fun and excitement. The plot is quick moving and full of surprises. There’s romance, action, comedy, music and lots of fantastic songs and dances.

2. This is a full-blooded magnificently written portrait of history’s most fascinating woman. Readers will lose themselves for hours in this richly entertaining novel full of dramatic twists and turns. From the spectacular era that bears her name comes the spellbinding story of Elizabeth I – her tragic childhood, her confrontation with Mary, Queen of Scots and her brilliant reign.

3. The young woman is shown in a “shepherdess” hat and white dress, recalling a classical chiton. The background landscape, common in such paintings, seems to indicate the heroine’s closeness to nature, to the ordinary joys of life. The painter’s colour range – at times us translucent as porcelain, at others muted like mother-of-pearl – is based upon subtle plays of gray and green, light blue and pink.

4. In this picture one is struck by artist’s absolute mastery in portraying natural details, whether the dry, sandy soil of the forest, the clear stream of water in the foreground, the yellow bark and fluffy needles of the pines, or the sense of a bright, clear, calm summer day. The artist managed to create an image familiar to anyone who has seen a Russian forest.

5. Have a good time on the most lively and exciting island in the Caribbean. Relax under a palm tree on the white sandy beaches. Swim in the clear, blue sea. Listen to the bands playing Calypso music. Or get really adventurous and go scuba diving for sunken treasure on the sea bed. Join in the many cultural celebrations we offer, for example the sugar harvest festival.

6. This event is considered the greatest attraction for visitors to the Isle of Man. No definite date can be given, but it is normally held between 5th and 15thJuly. The Pageant begins at about 8 p.m. First we are given a glimpse of village life in Celtic times. Then suddenly Viking long ships appear and then there are scenes of war. Then Celts and Vikings unite, and the Manx nation is born. The actual Pageant is followed by a grand torchlight procession and firework display.

7. Do you like Latin American dancing? Do you want to dance like you see in the films and on the stage? Do you want to feel the rhythm of the music in your body and in your soul? Do you want to meet other people who have a love for the same music as you? If you have answered “Yes” to any of these questions, join our Latin dance classes on Thursday night between seven and ten. All are welcome.








Установите соответствие тем A – H текстам 1 – 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один разВ задании одна тема лишняя.


A taste of everything


Activities for the adventurous and hardy


Shop till you drop


On the crossroads of religions


City’s tourist attractions


For the body, mind and soul


Ancient traditions live on


From the high peaks to the deep seas

1. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument or Monas is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.

2. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.

3. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.

4. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste ofIndonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.

5. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter-gathering culture.

6. Whether you are a serious spender or half hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.

7. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hill’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by the Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.








Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложений A – GОдна из частей в списке А – G лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.

Before the Hubble Space Telescope was launched, scientists thought they knew the universe. They were wrong.

The Hubble Space Telescope has changed many scientists’ view of the universe. The telescope is named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble, 1_______________________.

He established that many galaxies exist and developed the first system for their classifications.

In many ways, Hubble is like any other telescope. It simply gathers light. It is roughly the size of a large school bus. What makes Hubble special is not what it is, _______________________.

Hubble was launched in 1990 from the “Discovery” space shuttle and it is about 350 miles above our planet, _______________________.

It is far from the glare of city lights, it doesn’t have to look through the air, _______________________.

And what a view it is! Hubble is so powerful it could spot a fly on the moon.

Yet in an average orbit, it uses the same amount of energy as 28 100-watt light bulbs. Hubble pictures require no film. The telescope takes digital images 5_______________________.

Hubble has snapped photos of storms on Saturn and exploding stars. Hubble doesn’t just focus on our solar system. It also peers into our galaxy and beyond. Many Hubble photos show the stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy. A galaxy is a city of stars.

Hubble cannot take pictures of the sun or other very bright objects, because doing so could “fry” the telescope’s instruments, but it can detect infrared and ultra violet light _______________________.

Some of the sights of our solar system that Hubble has glimpsed may even change the number of planets in it.

A. which is above Earth’s atmosphere.

B. which are transmitted to scientists on Earth.

C. which is invisible to the human eye.

D. who calculated the speed at which galaxies move.

E. so it has a clear view of space.

F. because many stars are in clouds of gas.

G. but where it is.













Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложений A – GОдна из частей в списке А – G лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.

The science of sound, or acoustics, as it is often called, has been made over radically within a comparatively short space of time. Not so long ago the lectures on sound in colleges and high schools dealt chiefly with the vibrations of such things as the air columns in organ pipes. Nowadays, however, thanks chiefly to a number of electronic instruments engineers can study sounds as effectively _______________________. The result has been a new approach to research in sound. Scientists have been able to make far-reaching discoveries in many fields of acoustics _______________________.

Foremost among the instruments that have revolutionized the study of acoustics are electronic sound-level meters also known as sound meters and sound-intensity meters. These are effective devices that first convert sound waves into weak electric signals, then amplify the signals through electronic means 3_______________________. The intensity of a sound is measured in units called decibels. “Zero” sound is the faintest sound _______________________. The decibel measures the ratio of the intensity of a given sound to the standard “zero” sound. The decibel scale ranges from 0 to 130. An intensity of 130 decibels is perceived not only as a sound, but also _______________________. The normal range of painlessly audible sounds for the average human ear is about 120 decibels. For forms of life other than ourselves, the range can be quite different.

The ordinary sound meter measures the intensity of a given sound, rather than its actual loudness. Under most conditions, however, it is a quite good indicator of loudness. Probably the loudest known noise ever heard by human ears was that of the explosive eruption in August, 1883, of the volcano of Krakatoa in the East Indies. No electronic sound meters, of course, were in existence then, but physicists estimate that the sound at its source must have had an intensity of 190 decibels, _______________________.

A. and finally measure them.

B. since it was heard 3,000 miles away.

C. and they have been able to put many of these discoveries to practical use.

D. since a loud sound is of high intensity.

E. as they study mechanical forces.

F. as a painful sensation in the ear.

G. that the unaided human ear can detect.













Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложений A – GОдна из частей в списке А – G – лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.

Do you speak English?

When I arrived in England I thought I knew English. After I’d been here an hour I realized that I did not understand one word. In the first week I picked up a tolerable working knowledge of the language and the next seven years convinced me gradually but thoroughly that I _______________________, let alone perfectly. This is sad. My only consolation being that nobody speaks English perfectly.

Remember that those five hundred words an average Englishman uses are _______________________. You may learn another five hundred and another five thousand and yet another fifty thousand and still you may come across a further fifty thousand _______________________.

If you live here long enough you will find out to your greatest amazement that the adjective nice is not the only adjective the language possesses, in spite of the fact that _______________________. You can say that the weather is nice, a restaurant is nice, Mr. Soandso is nice, Mrs. Soandso’s clothes are nice, you had a nice time, _______________________.

Then you have to decide on your accent. The easiest way to give the impression of having a good accent or no foreign accent at all is to hold an unlit pipe in your mouth, to mutter between your teeth and finish all your sentences with the question: “isn’t it?” People will not understand much, but they are accustomed to that and they will get a _______________________.

A. whatever it costs

B. most excellent impression

C. you have never heard of before, and nobody else either

D. in the first three years you do not need to learn or use any other adjectives

E. would never know it really well

F. far from being the whole vocabulary of the language

G. and all this will be correct













Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 1  7, выбирая букву ABC или D. Установите соответствие номера задания выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Whilst travelling in 2001, I had my first but definitely not last go at snowboarding. Rhona and I went to the Cardona ski resort, a couple of hours from Queenstown in New Zealand. We had been staying in Queenstown for a couple of weeks and had tried a couple of the local ski resorts. They had been so popular, that there was almost no room to stay. The problem for me with this was that with so many people moving around me, my eyes were constantly re-focusing. This meant that I couldn’t see a thing! As I had never snowboarded before, we decided that it was going to be a problem. A guy at one of the local ski rental shops recommended that we should try Cardona.

On arrival I went straight to the Ski Patrol and explained my situation. They suggested that I should wear a vest, that they supplied, with the words ‘BLIND SKIER’ on the front and back on top of my jacket. They told me that this was more for the benefit of the other skiers around me. I must admit, I wasn’t very keen to do this, but thought I would give it a try.

Once onto the slopes, I put my vest on and began to practise my limited skills. Because I have done some other board sports, i. e. skateboarding, surfing, etc., it wasn’t too hard to learn the basics. Once I was comfortable with this, I headed off for the ski lift and the big slopes. As I stood in the queue I could hear people talking about that ‘poor blind guy’. This niggled me a bit, but I decided to try to ignore it. At the top of the lift I stepped off and strapped my feet onto the board.

As we headed off I could hear more people talking about the vest. I was starting to get paranoid. Then as I gathered speed and Rhona would shout directions, I realized that the people who saw the vest were getting out of my way. Fantastic! This was better than a white stick in a crowd. We picked up speed turning left, then right, hitting a few bumps, but mainly going really well. I even managed to control the snowboard. Well, sort of control it. Before I knew it, we had zipped down a long straight slope and had come to the end of the run. The adrenaline was buzzing and I was ‘high as a kite’. What a feeling. I got back on the ski lift and headed back up. This time I was going to do the run solo!

I had memorized the slope from my first run and felt very confident. As I came off the lift, I rushed to get started. Again, I could hear people talking about me, but now it didn’t matter. The vest was a definite benefit for the novice snowboarder! I took the first stage at a steady pace, looking for my first left bend. No problems there. I found that easy enough. I was now looking for my fast approaching right bend. I missed this one completely and ended up in the safety netting at the edge of the run.

At this point, I decided I was not the world’s best snowboarder and would have to take things a little slower. As the day progressed, so did my skills. I had a great time. Even taking ‘air’ on quite a few occasions. However this was not deliberate! I was now very wary about that bend I had missed, so I started to take it a bit earlier. Unfortunately, this meant that I would leap about 2 metres into the air. And what was more surprising than being airborne, was the fact that on half a dozen occasions, (out of about 30), I landed on my feet and carried on downhill. The rest of the time I fell on my bottom. I heard some people comment on how brave ‘that blind guy’ was. Little did they know it was lack of skill rather than bravery.

We boarded at Cardona for two days and had a fantastic time. Because it is a bit of a drive away from most of the tourist places, it is not as busy as the other ski resorts. It is mostly visited by the locals and I think that says something. If you get the chance, I would definitely recommend Cardona. I would also like to thank the Ski Patrol for that great suggestion. Without the vest, I am sure there could have been some crashes, caused by me. But with the vest , everyone just got out of the way. However, I think that if I was to get a vest for myself, it would probably read “BLIND &DAFT”.

1. The narrator and his companion decided to choose the Cardona ski resort


A) it was a short distance from Queenstown.

B) they couldn’t find a room at other resorts.

C) somebody said that it was worth going to.

D) it was popular with snowboarders.

2. The Ski Patrol suggested that the narrator should wear a vest in order to

A) make it easier for them to locate the narrator in case of an accident.

B) make the narrator feel more confident during his first go at snowboarding.

C) keep an eye on him on the slope.

D) prevent other people from colliding with him on the slopes.

3. When the narrator was standing in the queue he

A) felt annoyed by people’s comments.

B) felt comfortable in his vest.

C) tried to focus his eyes on the track.

D) tried to ignore his fear.

4. “This” in “This was better than a white stick in the crowd” refers to

A) the fact that people were getting out of the narrator’s way.

B) the narrator’s moving at a high speed down the slope.

C) the fact that Rhona was giving the narrator directions.

D) the narrator’s hearing more people talking about the vest.

5. The narrator did the second run solo and he

A) tried to memorize all the bends.

B) failed to go round one of the bends.

C) tried not to listen to Rhona’s directions.

D) fell down and was injured.

6. The narrator believes that his successful leaps into the air and landing on his

feet were due to

A) his personal courage.

B) people’s encouragement.

C) his intensive practising.

D) pure chance.

7. The narrator recommends the Cardona ski resort because

A) of the Ski Patrol efficient service

B) skiers are supplied with vests there.

C) it is less crowded than other places.

D) there are few crashes on the slopes.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 1 – 7, выбирая букву A, B, C или D. Установите соответствие номера задания выбранному вами варианту ответа.

The introduction to a new biography of Gannibal by the author

Alexander Pushkin was not only Russia’s greatest poet, but he was also the great-grandson of an African slave. The slave, whose godfather was Peter the Great, claimed to have royal blood of his own. Certainly his Russian descendants believed that he was an African prince. His descendants have included members as well as close friends of the English royal family. So the legend goes on.

Pushkin told the story of his black ancestor in “The Negro of Peter the Great”, but this biography tells a different version. The main difference is between fact and fiction. The Russian poet hoped to discover a biographical truth by sticking to the facts, only to discover that facts are slippery and not always true. His biography turned into a novel. Even then, it was left unfinished after six and a half chapters. The scrawled manuscript comes to an end with a line of dialogue – ‘Sit down, you scoundrel, let’s talk!’ — and a line of dots. Pushkin could be speaking to himself. In any case, it’s now time to stand up and carry on with the story. I have tried to join up the dots.

This is a book, then, about a missing link between the storyteller and his subject, an African prince; between the various branches of a family and its roots; between Pushkin and Africa; Africa and Europe; Europe and Russia; black and white. It is the story of a remarkable life and it poses the question: how is such a life to be explained?

My own explanation began in 2001, while I was living in Russia and working there as a journalist. The first draft was written during the war in Afghanistan, on the road to Kabul, but it describes my journey to the frontline of a different kind of war in Africa between the armies of Ethiopia and Eritrea. According to legend, Pushkin’s ancestor was born there, on the northern bank of the River Mareb, where I was arrested for taking photographs and compass readings, on suspicion of being a spy. Understandably my captors didn’t believe that I was only a journalist researching the life of Russia’s greatest writer. At the military camp, where I was held for a number of hours, the commandant looked me up and down when I asked, in my best posh English accent, ‘I say, my good man, can you tell me, basically, what is going on here?’ ‘Basically,’ he replied, with distaste, ‘you are in prison!’ The incident taught me something. Journalists, like biographers, are meant to respect facts, and by retracing Gannibal’s footsteps, I hoped to find a true story.

Some of those journeys lie behind the book, and are used whenever it is helpful to show that the past often retains a physical presence for the biographer – in landscapes, buildings, portraits, and above all in the trace of handwriting on original letters or journals. But my own journeys are not the point of the book. It is Gannibal’s story. I am only following him.

Descriptions of Africa and the slave trade result from my journeys, but this is not a book about a ‘stolen legacy’, nor certainly about the intellectual wars that have been part of black history in recent years. Biographers, like novelists, should tell stories. I have tried to do this. I should, however, point out from the outset that Gannibal was not the only black face to be seen in the centre of fashionable St Petersburg at that time. Negro slaves were a common sight in the grand salons of Millionaires’ Street and they appeared in a variety of roles, such as pets, pages, footmen, mascots, mistresses, favourites and adopted children. At the Winter Palace, so-called court Arabs, usually Ethiopians dressed in turbans and baggy trousers stood guard like stage extras in the marble wings.

1. The slave’s Russian descendants believe that the slave

A) had Russian royal blood in him.

B) was Peter the Great’s godfather.

C) belonged to the royal family in his native land.

D) was a close friend of the English royal family.

2. According to the narrator, the biography of Pushkin’s ancestor turned into a

novel because Pushkin

A) didn’t like the true biographical facts he had discovered.

B) found it impossible to stick to the facts that were doubtful.

C) could not do without describing fictional events.

D) found the true facts of the slave’s biography uninspiring.

3. The narrator’s objective in writing the book was to

A) write a new version of the novel “The Negro of Peter the Great”.

B) continue the story from where it was left unfinished.

C) interpret’s attitude to his ancestor.

D) prove that Pushkin’s ancestor was an African prince.

4. The narrator says that his research for the book

A) brought him to Russia to work as a journalist.

B) made him go to the war in Afghanistan.

C) led him to take part in the war in Africa.

D) brought him to a river bank in Africa.

5. The lesson that the narrator learnt from his arrest was

A) not to use a camera and compass at the frontline.

B) to avoid speaking to people in his best posh English accent.

C) not to distort information about real events.

D) never to tell people about his research.

6. The narrator thinks that his journeys

A) helped him find some visible traces of the past.

B) made him to feel sympathy to a “stolen legacy”.

C) deepened his understanding of the concept of intellectual wars.

D) turned out to be the main contents of his book.

7. The narrator points out that at the time of Gannibal

A) negro slaves played a variety of roles in the theatre.

B) black slaves were like stage extras in royal processions.

C) many Africans made a brilliant career at the court.

D) Africans were not a novelty in the capital of Russia.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 1  7, выбирая букву ABC или D. Установите соответствие номера задания выбранному вами варианту ответа.


Tonight, do yourself a favor. Shut off the TV, log off the Internet and unplug the phone. Relax, take a bath, maybe sip some herbal tea. Then move into the bedroom. Set your alarm clock for a time no less than eight hours in the future, fluff up your pillows and lay your head down for a peaceful night of restorative shut-eye. That’s what American doctors advise.

American sleep experts are sounding an alarm over America’s sleep deficit. They say Americans are a somnambulant nation, stumbling groggily through their waking hours for lack of sufficient sleep. They are working longer days – and, increasingly, nights – and they are playing longer, too, as TV and the Internet expand the range of round-the-clock entertainment options. By some estimates, Americans are sleeping as much as an hour and a half less per night than they did at the turn of the century – and the problem is likely to get worse.

The health repercussions of sleep deprivation are not well understood, but sleep researchers point to ills ranging from heart problems to depression. In a famous experiment conducted at the University of Chicago in 1988, rats kept from sleeping died after two and a half weeks. People are not likely to drop dead in the same way, but sleep deprivation may cost them their lives indirectly, when an exhausted doctor prescribes the wrong dosage or a sleepy driver weaves into someone’s lane.

What irritates sleep experts most is the fact that much sleep deprivation is voluntary. “People have regarded sleep as a commodity that they could shortchange,” says one of them. “It’s been considered a mark of very hard work and upward mobility to get very little sleep. It’s a macho attitude.” Slumber scientists hope that attitude will change. They say people have learned to modify their behavior in terms of lowering their cholesterol and increasing exercise. Doctors also think people need to be educated that allowing enough time for sleep and taking strategic naps are the most reliable ways to promote alertness behind the wheel and on the job.

Well, naps would be nice, but at the moment, employers tend to frown on them. And what about the increasing numbers of people who work at night? Not only must they work while their bodies’ light-activated circadian rhythms tell them to sleep, they also find it tough to get to sleep after work. Biologists say night workers have a hard time not paying attention to the 9-to-5 day because of noises or family obligations or that’s the only time they can go to the dentist. There are not too many dentists open at midnight.

As one might imagine, companies are springing up to take advantage of sleeplessness. One of the companies makes specially designed shift-work lighting systems intended to keep workers alert around the clock. Shift-work’s theory is that bright light, delivered in a controlled fashion, can help adjust people’s biological clocks. The company president says they are using light like a medicine. So far, such special lighting has been the province of NASA astronauts and nuclear power plant workers. He thinks that in the future, such systems may pop up in places like hospitals and 24-hour credit-card processing centers. Other researchers are experimenting with everything from welder’s goggles (which night workers wear during the day) to human growth hormones. And, of course, there is always what doctors refer to as “therapeutic caffeine use,” but everyone is already familiar with that.

So, is a good night’s sleep an impossible dream for Americans? Maybe so.

1. The advice of American doctors is all about

A) ways to reduce negative effect of modern technologies.

B) complex measures that ensure healthy sleep.

C) positive effect of herbal therapy.

D) the process of restoring from unexpected psychological stress.

2. Americans are referred to as a “somnambulant nation” because they

A) need special help to fall asleep.

B) are sleepwalkers.

C) regularly wake up at night.

D) don’t get enough sleep to function effectively.

3. Experiments with sleep deprivation proved that

A) it inevitably leads to death.

B) its repercussions have finally become predictable.

C) it is likely to result in cardio or nervous problems.

D) animal and human reaction are almost alike.

4. There is a tendency to sleep less because

A) people want to look tough at any cost.

B) people think they can reduce sleeping hours without any harm .

C) people have learned to cope with less sleep just as they have learned to lower cholesterol.

D) otherwise they lose career and social opportunities.

5. Having naps during the day would be nice, but

A) doctors do not find them effective.

B) people won’t take them voluntarily.

C) bosses are against this.

D) it is difficult to arrange.

6. People who work at night can hardly

A) fulfill traditional family obligations.

B) consult doctors when needed.

C) socialize to their liking.

D) ever sleep without ear-plugs.

7. The main aim of specially designed shift-work lighting system is

A) to help people feel alert at night.

B) to provide better lightning.

C) to prevent heart diseases.

D) to stimulate human growth hormones.

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Управление финансами

Курс доллара на 2018 год
Курс евро на 2018 год
Цифровые валюты 2018
Алименты 2018

Аттестация рабочих мест 2018
Банкротство 2018
Бухгалтерская отчетность 2018
Бухгалтерские изменения 2018
Бюджетный учет 2018
Взыскание задолженности 2018
Выходное пособие 2018

График отпусков 2018
Декретный отпуск 2018
ЕНВД 2018
Изменения для юристов 2018
Кассовые операции 2018
Командировочные расходы 2018
МСФО 2018
Налоги ИП 2018
Налоговые изменения 2018
Начисление заработной платы 2018
ОСНО 2018
Эффективный контракт 2018

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